Abstracts (English)


Johannes Angermüller
Hegemonic Articulations and Discursive Subjectivities after 9/11. The German Case

Western Germany's foreign policy has had a long tradition of "Westintegration", the post-war policy giving priority to the alliance with Western countries under American leadership. During the last national election campaign in summer 2002, however, a major shift took place. In refusing the American war plans in Iraq, the Schröder government decided not to support the American campaign and to help establish an anti-war majority in the U.N. security council. Not only did the German government's move prepare the way for the emergence of a global anti-war hegemony; it also rearticulated the hegemonic constitution of German domestic politics. This paper will describe the hegemonic articulations taking place in the aftermath of the government's non-alignment with the American strategy. It is argued that the anti-war hegemony has come to comprise far more than the traditional "anti-imperialist" stance on the far left and right. The unionist criticism of American-style capitalism, both old and new supporters of an international legal and political order (like the Hague tribunal), pacifist and anti-imperialist tendencies (especially in Eastern Germany and among Christians), "nationalist" calls for a "German foreign policy" (Schröder's "Deutscher Weg"), supporters of a more forceful army, the adherents of a "European Europe", the ecological agenda (cf. Bush's refusal of Kyoto), intellectual voices (e.g. Günter Grass) have formed a new "hegemonic bloc" whose "anti-American" tendency has increasingly become an official position in Germany's public sphere. Thus unexpectedly, the government's hegemonic repositioning has articulated discursive elements, formerly widely dispersed on the political spectrum, so as to give a new boost to the well-nigh defunct red-green hegemony and to pave the way to Schröder's electoral success in September 2002.
The common narrative has it that the anti-war hegemony in Germany as well as in other countries has emerged as a counter-force against the wielding of brute political and military power. But are not the new global civil society - the huge, mainly virtual public sphere - and the existence of a unilateral superpower rather the flip sides of one and the same phenomenon? This paper will argue for a view that stresses the intertwinement of hegemony and power. Contrary to the view that takes the anti-war hegemony in terms of a public sphere of "freely deliberating people", power will be seen as being at the very heart of the public sphere. Thus military power is antagonistic to the hegemonic bloc precisely in the sense that it can be seen as a constitutive outside which makes hegemonic resistance possible in the first place. The paper will conclude by highlighting the paradoxical structure of power in hegemonic discourse. Power strives not only for the legitimation of its own practice but it calls itself into question by producing hegemonic resistances. Therefore, it seems, the exercise of global military power and the emergence of a global civil society are highly intertwined movements.

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Günseli Bayraktutan
Where Academicians Fish in: Electronic Databases as Academica Aquaria

The free flow of information thesis which is a never achieved ideal is also not valid in today's world inspite of the powerful  existence of internet. The information is privatised through the control of many national and international corporations. Scientific information is also delivered throughout the world via these corporations whose products called e-databases,containing the most expensive commodity of the era. These sources of academic information, which I call academica aquaria are shaping the boundaries of the academic information and communication which results in homogenization, which is mainly ideological. Academicians/ researchers do certain studies with the selected material, in other words they fish in academica aquaria instead of open seas. Here appears the question of in what ways these special knowledge is produced, selected and published electronically. What is represented in  these packages called scientific e-databases? Who, with which mechanisms decide the selection and evaluation of these information? What kind of information is included to these aquaria? What kind of appraisals exist in today's world against this homogenization? In this study, the current situation, the usage and history of e-databases in Turkish academic life, the hegemony they build in the sphere of academic communication and the operations of the information market and its unequal conditions are going to be discussed under Turkish conditions.The nature of certain formations like concortia building or free database products are also going to be discussed. The summarizing question can be posed as "where do we stand in this big homogenization process?". 

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Steven Corcoran
Reinscribing Political Antagonism

The current phase of global capital has created the conditions of an ideology of opening (of markets, to liberal tolerance) which at the same have induced a marked resurgence of the older forms of national and religious identification. In the meantime, it also creates vast zones of exclusion. In the spirit of Badiou, Zizek and others, I will argue that this antagonism (liberal democracy vs. fundamentalist and nationalist identifications) displaces and obfuscates a more radical social antagonism. It is this radical social antagonism that makes exception to the current order and which political practice must address if we are to extricate ourselves from yet another lugubrious chapter in biopolitical power.
   The apparent universality of global political discourse is belied by its position of enunciation. What are conditions of production of that position? What does this discourse serve to displace and how should it be reinscribed so that we can extricate ourselves from the ignominious political universe it structures? And, finally, what kind of affirmative politics would be capable of preventing contemporary (global) biopolitics?

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Noemi Gal-Or
Public-Private Partnership in Justice: Access to Justice in the International Trade Liberalisation Regime

The paper will address representation as the problem of political delegation in reference to access to justice under regional and global trade liberalisation regimes. I will continue to elaborate on the underlying proposition in my earlier studies that the contours of the "benefit" of market integration encompass vital questions of justice, and that lack of universal access to justice amounts both to a non-tariff barrier (NTB) to trade, and to a "trade barrier to justice" (TBJ).
I will apply the indicators of legitimacy and distributive justice (see, T. M. Franck, 1995) to a transdisciplinary juxstaposition of NAFTA awards with the WTO jurisprudence in order to ascertain the extent of institutionalisation and constitutionalisation arising from these international non-court procedures. Specifically, I will study the mutual influence of the WTO Appellate Body and NAFTA Chapter 11 jurisprudence and the effect on the democracy in international relations and justice in international law.

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Ranjan Gosh
Problems of (I)dentity and (Re)presentation: reformulating several sites of contestation in Medha Patkar and the NBA

Narmada Valley Project is the largest river development project in the world which envisages the construction of thirty large and hundreds of small dams along its length.
This paper chooses Narmada Valley Andolan (Save Narmada Movement) or popularly known as NBA as a complicated site for representation to theorize on the issues involved with 'authentic identity' instancing Medha Patkar's (the internationally acclaimed spearheader of the movement) development in relation to the movement and its people, the representational complexities in the personal-social interplay, group beliefs as an expression of social identity and aspects of social creativity. It also looks at the possibilities of 'glocalizing' this authentic-local-social identity within these conflicting and intersecting perspectives.
My paper argues that NBA re-presents Medha's personal identity within the philosophy of authenticity as interpreted through the works of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger and Sartre. Within such philosophical context, Medha represents herself as a positive power with firm authentic selfhood and manifests the right and freedom of her people; it is the self-affirmation of her power and virtues that psychologically enables the affirmation of the 'other. The representational space then includes within the philosophical theorization the social-local-ethnic identity of the people and its concomitant intricacies. The paper engaging itself with social categorization theory argues through documentational research how the micro-level of eco-cultural-political defiance pushes at the macro-level of institutional initiative. At the next stage of the argument , the representational space engenders fresh circuits of operation through 'informationalization' and 'glocalization'. With transnationalized identity the movement members mark out their space and value in the glocalized pluripotent neoworld (the involvement of the World Bank and other international organizations including the Green Peace). The problems of the NBA in the newly coded milieux relive the ecologies of domination and resistance and in their reformulated discourse of power and ideology maps out the new socio-economic and cultural spaces. The argument hinges on the new dictional entities with separate spaces of operation and different signs of authority.
At another level of representation, the NBA challenges the traditional spatial notions of national sovereignty. Joining the global web it grows its own formations of telematic territory, focussing on different sites of power and knowledge as abetted by the transinformationalizing process. This includes re-presenting the significant issues of sustainable development, environmental ethics and environmental justice. The paper combines in such reconstruction of 'spaces' the compulsive paradigms of tribal heritage, pride and tradition.
So through an interdisciplinary approach that intertwines  the philosophical paradigm of 'authenticity' in modern European thought, archival research analyzing the 'policy research' of the movement, social identity theories, environmental ethics, eco-ethnic-cultural perspective and theories of globalization, the paper critiques 'representation' as the problem of perspectivality and locatedness of knowledge.

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Antonio Gomez-Ramos
Globalisierung: Vom Ende der Geschichte zum Anfang des Geschichtlich-Seins

Das allgemeine Bewusstsein der Globalisierung fäll in der Zeit mit dem Diskurs über das Ende der Geschichte zusammen. Inwieweit aber beide auch zusammenhängen ist das Thema meines Vortrags. Denn dreizehn Jahre nach dem vermeintlichen Ende der Geschichte bleibt der Begriff Geschichte immer noch ein wichtiges rhetorisches Mittel im politischen Machtkamp -d.h. er nimmt einen zentralen Platz in der Selbstrepräsentationen unserer Zeit ein, und auf ihn können sich sowohl Freunde wie Gegner der Globalisierung berufen. Die Fronten sind auch einigermasse verkehrt --war die sogenante Weltgeschichte ein Globalisierungsprozess, bedeutet die Globalisierung, wie wir sie heute verstehen, das Ende der Weltgeschichte als einheitliche Metanarration des Westens. Das bedeutet nicht das endgültige Ende des geschitlich-seins, aber das Aufkommen von Begriffe wie Posthistoire, Ende der Metanarrationen und Postmoderne markiert eine eindeutige Zäsur für das moderne Verständnis der Geschichte. Mein Vortrag versucht diese Zäsur von den geschichtlichen Bedingungen der Globalisierung aus zu verstehen um der Begriff der Geschichtlichkeit neu zu bestimmen. Dabei nehme ich vorwiegend Bezug auf Texte von Walter Benjamin und Hannah Arendt, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Gedanken über das Handeln, die Verantwortung und die kantische Urteilskraft. Geschichtlich sein wird dann heissen, politisch in einer pluralen und Globalen Welt handeln und urteilen zu können, ohne auf eine höhere Instanz wie die Weltgeschichte oder ähnliches zu appellieren. Die These wird sein, dass es nun gerade nach dem Ende der Geschichte kommt es eben darauf an, geschichtlich zu sein.

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Sebastian Groes
McLiterature

Culture and literature in a globalising world appear to be made subordinate to a market economy, leading to uniformity and intellectual incest. Monopolies (Murdoch, Turner, Disney, Bertellsmann) dominate, small publishing houses and book shops steadily disappear and only mediagenic authors are about to publish. David Lodge and Ian McEwan have recently stated that literature is the best instrument to record the evolution of human consciousness: if the accuracy of this measuring device is eroded, this may have disastrous consequences for the survival of mankind, as the imagination, creativity and originality are obliterated by commercial totalitarianism. In my paper I will explore what I call "McLiterature". This will be done by critical analysis of Ritzer's theory of McDonalization, the influence of mass media and marketing, the function of Creative Writing faculties and the creation of Super Universities. In conclusion, I will discuss the role of the imaginative faculty in more general terms.

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Steffen Hantke
Paracinema and the Neoliberal Subject: Takeshi Miike's Audition as Global Cinema

Upon its release in Europe and the US in 2000, Japanese director Takeshi Miike's Audition met with high critical acclaim. Western reviewers mobilized either a rhetoric of popular genre, praising the film for its innovative approach to the tired conventions of the horror genre, or they resorted to a rhetoric of high modernism, complimenting the film on its radical ambiguity and interiority. Combining the two, some reviewers read Audition as an example of paracinema, a fusion of radical avantgarde aesthetics with a low-cultural camp sensibility.
Emerging from these critical responses is a global subjectivity that allows a text like Audition to move freely across cultural barriers. Mapped out by the critical responses, the ideal audience position in regard to Audition is defined by transcultural literacy. It suspends the cultural (Japanese versus Western) and social (popular genre versus high modernism) ressenmtiments associated with the old cultural registers, as it fuses both into a new aesthetic. Paracinema overcomes the antagonism between its respective ingredients-it caters neither to social elites nor to mass audiences. Instead, it maps out a utopia of social mobility as it signals the attenuation of social class as a distinguishing feature of its implied audience.
This new paracinematic aesthetic does, however, align itself with what Holert and Terkissides have called "the neoliberal subject," a bourgeois subjectivity that is emerging as the proper subjectivity for new utopian visions of the global economy. Audition suggests that the mobility and sophistication of the neoliberal subject manifest themselves as transcultural literacy.

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Cornelia Hassa
Corporate Internet Texts: Linguistic Realisation and Globalization

This paper will present first results of a linguistic analysis of corporate websites. It will investigate if and how global contexts influence the linguistic realisation of corporate identity texts on the internet. It will discuss whether corporate languages are on the edge to diversity or uniformity.
It is the language that is the most important medium of human expression and communication. Language serves to express oneself, for mutual exchange, to acquire and pass on knowledge. Through the language cultural norms and traditions are gained and transmitted. On some occasion the language serves to differentiate or mark group affiliations. It represents identity. As corporations developed into an integral part of society they are embedded into societal issues. The sole goal of economic activity - the gaining of profit - is no longer sufficient. Attempts to grow globally and act in foreign markets puts corporations into a variety of different contexts. A reliable pattern of internal and external activity - a corporate identity in the literal sense - is needed. The World Wide Web is a complex communication network which offers various possibilities of usage. Under the group of commercial homepages the web presence of corporations has been subsumed. Meanwhile, a detailed corporate website belongs to the prelims of good corporate communication. The company decides which information will be presented and how they will be presented. Potential recipient of such information offers is each user of the web, independent of time and location.
The chosen companies operate internationally. The sample texts are corporate image texts. Paying attention to both, the global orientation of the sample companies and the textual specimens of internet texts, the paper will focus on the use or employment of language.

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Anil Jain
The Economy of Difference

Any economy is fuelled by difference - the difference between what we got and what we need or, expresses in the terms of market economy, the difference between offers and demands. Capitalism, however, relies on the exploitation of difference. It can be a power imbalance: the unequal opposition of capital and labour, a (technological) competitive edge or a cultural difference (conveying ideas for new product lines or just creating export possibilities) etc. So difference must be sustained - sometimes even by violence. However, modern capitalism cannot limit itself. Stagnation is its biggest enemy. Its movement is globalizing. But the unification-processes that go along with globalization exactly destroy its economic basis: difference. The »natural« differences are levelled and thus (new) »artificial« differences have to be created in order to exploit them. This has interesting effects on difference as a theoretical concept, on the personality and on space and place: Difference becomes a core concept, and (the discourse of) difference itself today works as a »dispositive«: a power-structure that governs and excludes. On the level of personality we can see the effects of a complete(d) alienation. We have to incorporate difference and we become »strangers to ourselves«, i.e. we are forced to internalize concepts like multiplicity, hybridity and flexibility. Any moment of fixed identity, that also could provide resources of resistence, has to be eliminated. Similar with place: there is permanent pressure for hyperreal production and simulation. The places have to stage their particularity in order to attract attention, people and capital. But their difference has to be compatible with the needs of global capitalism. More and more they loose their character as »real« places - places of being, of community and being different.

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Petra Kuppinger
Globalized Spaces and Localized Discourse: Selling Gated Communities in Cairo

Cairo's move into the 21st century has been marked by the unprecendented mushrooming of upscale gated communities on the city's desert outskirts. From smaller apartment buildings set in a pleasant park atmoshpere to large and lavish villas situated in an abundance of greenery, different developments offer varying degrees of excusivity, material comforts and symblic distance from the crowds, noises and pollution of the city. Focusing on the more exclusive of these developments, this paper examines marketing discourses of planners and real estate companies, which, in addition to selling fancy homes, offer a globalized dream, or more precisely, particiaption in a newly designed local version of a prestigious globalized lifestyle. Beyond addressing upscale material demands, social sentiments and fears, this discourse suggests that potential customers, in addition to relocating within the Cairo metropolitian region, symbolically relocate on a global map. By moving into a gated community, buyers enter into the imagined global neighborhood of gated communities anywhere fronm Southern California to Delhi or Sao Paolo. A number of questions guide my analysis. How are new symbols or markers of globalization, such as gated communities, represented in a concrete context? Why are these markers so prestigious? Why are globalized images a selling point at the expensive of existing spatialities? Finally, are there any indications that the powerful appeal of gated communities and other such symbols transcends elite discourses and material realities, and influence the lives of the Cairene masses?

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Jaroslav Kušnir
Metafictional Representation of Reality in Paul Auster´s The Locked Room (1985)

The Locked Room is a part of Paul Auster´s The New York Trilogy in which an unnamed narrator gives seemingly a story of both his search for identity and for his lost friend named Fanshawe. This story, however, turns out to be a story on the representation of reality, on the relationship between the author, writer, and a reader as well as on the relation between reality and its artistic representation. In my paper I will analyze the narrative strategies, techniques and means such as metafiction, allegory and others Paul Auster uses to address a problematic relationship between reality and its representation, between life and art. The main focus will be on the analysis of Auster´s thematization of writing as a metaphor signifying these relationships as well as on the way Auster problematizes, and even undermines some aspects of American cultural identity, especially the American Dream.

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Edward Lusk
What Goes Around Comes Around A Study of the Rhetoric of Popular Music

This study examines the message encoding in the popular music culture that sets up the psychology of revenge&i.e. Backlash. Backlash usually has an action/re-action character that usually sets up a sort of perpetual motion revenge machine. The Backlash moment for the study will be the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. This event will be examined as Backlash that had its genesis in the inflammatory permissive violence that is a part of the popular music culture. We will examine the contemporary poetry of two Super Groups: Aerosmith and Marilyn Manson. The lyrics of Eat the Rich and Beautiful People will be examined for their metaphoric casting of The Other and will be examined as the genesis for the Backlash as it played out at the WTC.

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Dominique Maingueneau
Discourse analysis, Globalization and Scientific Creativity

My purpose in this contribution is to illuminate some aspects of globalization of science in taking advantage of discourse analysis. On one hand, the development of discourse analysis is tightly bound to globalization ; on the other hand, it makes possible a critical approach to the conditions under which scientific discourse is produced. Until the eighties, the scholars who, in various countries (almost in Europe and in the USA), worked in the area of discourse analysis were not connected with each other, their theoretical assumptions were hardly compatible ; nowadays a worldwide field of « discourse studies » is coming to light. Such a phenomenon raises a lot of problems regarding the production of knowledge. If we consider social sciences and humanities from the viewpoint of discourse analysis, it can be argued that unrestricted globalization may be prejudicial to the quality of scientific activity. The constitution of a completely « free » market tends to provoke an increasing conformism, to the detriment of the richness of scientific contents.

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Anja Mauruschat
Criticizing globalization by introducing a global anti-myth

In my paper, I would like to talk about the novel "Q" and the question of how it textually represents - in a metaphorical way - global capitalism and counterconcepts. "Q" was written in the mid-nineties of the 20th century by the Italian writers' collective Luther Blissett that developed from a background of guerillacommunications.
At first I want to consider wether  this novel  can be described as the mythology of the critics of globalization. "Q" was published first in Italy in Spring 1999. The action takes place in the 16th Century in Germany during the age of  Reformation, the Peasants' Revolts.and Counter-Reformation. Nevertheless it was soon widely read by an international readership and an anology was drawn to the history of the "anti"-globalization movement as it has been developing since 1999.
Secondly I would like to point out, how "Q", on the one hand, illustrates the ideas of critical theorists of globalization such as Antonio Negri, Michael Hardt and Franco Berardi, and, on the other hand, criticizes them to some degree at the same time. I will claim that rather than the theorists the novel itself represents the most appropriate analysis of the contemporary international politics.
My final point will be the investigation of how this Luther Blissett-Project has been dealing with the dilemma of  the "criticism of representation" , which can be understood - according to Thomas Mitchell - as the impulse to criticize representation while at the same time being well aware of the inevitability of representation.

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John Murphy
Globalization, Social Fragmentation, and the Need for a New Social Contract

At this time, various writers in Latin America are arguing that globalization, due to the influence of neo-liberalism, is fragmanting and undermining societies. Accordingly, they are calling for the development of a new social contract, so that the integrity of cultures can be maintained.  The work of Habermas and Levinas is explored as a possible foundation of this new pact.  Their work, however, is illustrated to be problematic and insufficient to establish equitable relationships among persons.  The perspective of Enrique Dussel--the creator of liberation philosophy--is also discussed and shown to be more appropriate for establish the type of social contract envisioned by these Latin scholars.  Dussel introduces political elements that are missing from Habermas and Levinas, but are crucual for creating a fair and just social bond.  The aim of this discussion is to advance the current debate about the creation of a social contract that is needed in Latin America and other places in the world.

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Hakiem & Margo Nankoe
The Historical Trajectory of the Late Capitalist World towards World-Empire

Throughout the long 20th century, the capitalist world-economy has been undergoing transmutations which seems to be affecting its very historical nature in such a way that the global system we have known may be evolving into a different type of entity. This paper discusses 'temporal' limits as well as key historical transformation processes of the capitalist world. We argue that overcoming these 'temporal' limits have become in key respects more challenging in the mature phase of the world-economy. The seminal conflicts between the great powers of the 'long' 20th century to reorganize the international order along alternative models has come - at least for now - to a dead end. These geopolitical alternatives have been outmaneuvered by the United States. With the currently prevailing national security paradigm of the hegemon, its increasing unilateralism, and its overwhelming military might in this phase of transition, the world-system is tending to head unchallenged into a global-empire American style.

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J. Paul Narkunas
On the Uses and Abuses of War: Humanitarianism and the US Empire

The German intellectual critic Walter Benjamin warns in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproducibility" (1936) of fascism's aestheticization of politics, specifically the danger of aestheticizing war to the degree where humanity "can experience its own annihilation as a supreme aesthetic pleasure." One of the more perverse contemporary manifestations of war as an aesthetic event in the Anglo-American context has been the recent staging of the televised war Operation Iraqi Freedom as a "humanitarian war."   Humanitarian wars rely on morality and "just war" theory to legitimate war as a form of governance or politics by other means with the "right intentions," even if they may violate human rights or result in genocide.  One of the more perverse aspects of the war is that the US will destroy much of Iraqi in order to-as it says-"free" it.  In other words, this "humanitarian" war will use human suffering to legitimate American intervention, and the first wave of soldiers will be accompanied by a second wave of humanitarian organizations in its wake.   Ironically, Iraq could be occupied not only by the American military, but also by humanitarian NGO's, and a reserve army of US and "coalition of the willing" firms that will be charged with rebuilding a country that is annihilated to "free" it.  Perversely, the US war machine legitimates its extension and continuation through its humanitarianism.
For this paper, I will consider how the TV war being shown in the US draws from such pop culture fodder as the reality TV craze (Survivor, Big Brother, Fear Factor, and more abstractly Joe Millionaire-but which all share a Machiavellian impulse to vanquish all adversaries) to normalize "war as entertainment."  The filtered snapshots of some events of the war as the crystallized truth of war deploys the same formal techniques as reality TV shows by fragmenting the carnage of war instead into a series of weekly challenges and obstacles to be overcome for an objective.  For example, while on NBC's Fear Factor contestants surmount a series of obstacles to overcome their fears of heights, etc., the soldiers in the desert overcome their fears of hostile populations and "evildoers."  The normalization of "war as entertainment" utilizes a myth of transparency: the mere televising of scenes of war is showing the truth of the war, despite the fact that all "embedded journalists" with the military are subject to censorship.  Yet the images broadcast from the front, albeit not in real time, give off the aura of authenticity without the messy scenes of death that are edited by a compliant media, more afraid of losing market share than in the truth, as "inappropriate."  If war is normalized as entertainment and humanitarian, the US's imperial aspirations could know no limits, begging the question of fascism.  The US's willingness to shun and punish longstanding allies like Germany and Turkey, almost at the drop of a hat, is in itself a terrifying exception to the rule of diplomacy.  This paper will contend how the US is mobilizing its former Cold War rhetoric to make "hot" wars a normal facet of everyday life in the US, justified by their "humanitarianism," and could offer a chilling example of Benjamin's warning.

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Georg Oesterdiekhoff
US Hegemony and Chances of a Development of a Multilateral Order

After the breakdown of the Soviet Union the world believed in a new international system and world order where social, economic and ecological problems could be processed and solved. In the early nineties principles of a multilateral policy raised with UN as a center of world politics. After 1994 and especially after september 2001 US foreign policy destroyed these widespread hopes and launched a new time of hegemony and international problems.

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Marcus Otto
'Theatrum mundi' - A mediterranean imaginary of modern 'cosmopolitan' performativity

The concept of a 'theatrum mundi' became one of the main features of aesthetic re-presentation in the Baroque in which Christine Buci-Glucksmann sees the paradigm of aesthetic (post)modernity. It was intrinsically interwoven with an allegorical (rather than a symbolic) world view which had its ancient origins in the 'cosmopolitan' mediterranean landscape of pre-socratic greek antiquity. Instead of being a pure renaissance of the classical greek tradition the modern imaginative revival of the 'theatrum mundi' hints at the specific modern aesthetic condition of immediate presence and performativity distinguished from the classical notion of representation. Moreover it corresponds to the genuine mediterranean culture of allegorical hybridity, dionysian theatrical immediateness and its immanent agonality of the social (demonstrated by Nietzsche and reevaluated by Foucault) which gets sublimated but still insists in the utilitarian hypostization of universalized functionally differentiated and temporally mediated institutions as well as in the corresponding holistic vision of a world society. Therefore it seems promising to me to treat this theatrical world view as a mediterranean vantage point for modern social theory of contemporary globalization. This also offers the opportunity to undermine the conventional micro/macro-dichotomy by theorizing the not at least mimetic relationship (Gabriel Tarde) - which often enough results in melancholy - between the imaginary self-institution of society (Castoriadis) and its en-acting subjectivities on the 'global stage'.

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Andreas Pickel
Entity or Idea, Property or Process? Rethinking the Nation under Globalization

The nation as idea, concept, and social reality has not been treated kindly by globalization. Associated with the backlash against irresistible historical forces, doomed to obsolescence by global postmodern culture, deprived of its institutional shell by the decline of the state, and with a questionable reputation among social scientists to boot, the nation appears to be rapidly fading into little more than a historical phenomenon. This paper offers a systematic reconceptualization of “the national” on the assumption that whatever the strength and outcome of regionalizing and globalizing forces, they can be adequately mapped and explained only if the dynamics of national states, societies, economies, and cultures are incorporated into the analysis. In particular, the national remains fundamental in the legitimation of social and political orders. I propose a systemic analytical framework and mechanism-based explanation as an approach with which to reconceptualize the national in the age of globalization. I present the “nationalizing mechanism” as a crucial social process in current global transformations, providing examples for its working in such diverse fields as postcommunist transitions, global business, and transnational movements.

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Holger Rossow
Towards an International Community - Empire of Democracy or Pax Americana?

Iraq, Kosovo, Afghanistan, the War on Terror, and again Iraq - the clarity and simplicity of the Cold War now belong to the past. The world is in dire need of a new framework, new communities need to be formed. This may take the form of an "Empire of Democracy", the contours of which were first sharply focussed during the war in Kosovo. This war not only shaped the discourse about the respective roles of the USA, Britain and "Europe" in an allegedly emerging new world order but also created a new concept of sovereignty. However, the questions how present and future conflicts should be handled and how the international legal order has to be changed have yet to be answered.
If the future world order is not characterised by a form of Pax Americana, there are at least four questions to be addressed: (1) who is going to define this "Empire of Democracy" beyond seemingly uncontroversial principles of peace and democracy, liberty and the rule of law, (2) who is determining the rules of entry, (3) what will happen if one country cannot meet the high standards, and (4) what role will there be for the USA, NATO, the UN, an enlarged European Union as well as other international institutions?

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Philippe Schmidt
The Voices of Ground Zero: Public Interest Representation in the global city

New York is a city of juxtapositions and of rapid changes. As ‚global city‘ it lost the “world trade center” on September 11th, 2001 – the built manifestation of globalization. The discussion about renewing downtown Manhattan has lead from a local and regional context to questioning the urban typology of the financial district where a new formulation could represent a key planning issue for the competition about ‘location’ amid a geography of the creative class, going far beyond the headquarter ideology of globally acting enterprises. The glocal context of gentrification and segregation raises fundamental questions about the role of planners and architects in the engagement for the civil society as well as in public private partnerships of semi-governmental authorities within the city’s territory. Like in the case of the WTC, for the agenda of city politics, large scale urban projects serve the city image on a global level.
Grond Zero is exemplary, how ‘Public Interest Groups’, who claim for concepts of reformulation of the financial district as part of the global city, carry out local and regional cohesions in a ‘city for citizens’ to the public and represent it by supreme effort. Results from the empiric study (2002), show their reach to take legal action and capacity, their professional legitimization and their entry point in the planning process. As a reaction to September 11th, 2001 these groups, as a publicly acting and professional stimulus, stand for “reflexive representations” in the urban discourse of the global city, in search of the “21st century city”.

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Heiko Schrader
Globalization, Fragmentation and Modernity

For some people globalization is the highest stage of economic development, where goods, services, money and knowledge have become highly mobile on a world-scale, where the entire world will benefit from. For others, it is a ‘disorganized capitalism’ that looses its moral embeddedness, being the most recent stage of western imperialism, where not only western goods, capital and knowledge, but also western culture undermine non-Western economies and societies, their cultural heritage and values.
However, globalisation is not only a concept - it remains a fact that has opened domestic markets for foreign products and companies and particularly changed the life styles of middle- and upper class people in non-western societies. Social structure is in a process of rapid change. In India, for example, we observe a very strong anti-western and anti-global, nationalist and racist rhetoric of right-wing and left-wing parties and a mobilised mob against Westernization. The phenomena just described, are not only anti-global, but themselves an inherent part of globalisation and modernization.
In this paper I will describe the multifaceted processes of globalisation being linked to modernization as an originally western thought that expanded around the world. I will address the question of how far the concept modernity is universal or specific to western culture and its history, and take up the discussion of non-western modernities as attempts to modernize in a culturally grounded way by achieving the technological benefits from modernity and avoiding the related painful social and cultural restructuring. If such non-western modernities emerge they may impact on globalisation and its conceptualisation.

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Stephen Shapiro
Mythologies of "Gloablization's" Autonomy: Capitalist Space and Left Institutionality

Hardt and Negri's Empire has reignited long standing arguments between marxism and anarchy about left institutionality, the durable formations that nurture and protect a progressive life-world. Hardt and Negri's Deluezian-informed critique invokes a politics of spontaneity and their Foucauldian-derived anti-statism becomes a programmatic anti-institutionality, where premeditated collective formations of any kind are seen as complicit with disciplinary mechanisms. Yet, as Empire argues for a new epoch of capitalist rule that is systemically de-centered, rather than presenting a new configuration of core-periphery arrangements, Hardt and Negri abolishes the law of inter-capitalist competition and its role in shaping a global geography of uneven development. Without any sense of the entrepreneurial heterogeneity within capitalism, Hardt and Negri overlook how the search for a new organic composition of capital fuels bourgeois civil war and manufactures new instances of popular resistance. Empire's dithyrambs of molecular de-linkage thus manifest anarcho-autonomism's defining trait as a socialized form of libertarianism that proclaims the radical right of nomadic de-territorialization without a self-critique on how this freedom has been preconditioned by the nightmare of liberalism's political economy. In this paper I will conversely argue for reading globalization through the work of the French Regulation School on the interlinkage between varying regimes of accumulation, which cover the production of surplus-value, and modes of regulation, which supervise the social reproduction of class/status hierarchies. Regulationist approaches not only suggest a means of a new Marx-Foucault fusion, but also urge the re-formation of anti-globalization counter-institutions.

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Ruby Sircar
@mp [asiatic mode of production] - The Identity-Creating Syntax of Sonic Productions of the Second South Asian generation in Europe

This paper will try to discuss a necessary problematic/multi-layered/self-defining critical approach of a "generation" which tries to define its own identity/ self-build and self-defined community through non-locusbound sonic media signs, as it is no longer possible to define itself by setting up class specific, ethnic, genderised and geographical boundaries.
The sonic media could not have made the self-conscious step - out of the local bindings - without a critical, ongoing discussion and an activist as well as theoretical background. This background was provided, as an ideological and theoretical überbau, through the approaches defined by literary, culture, gender and political critics, mainly related to the Post-colonial field, feminists, anti-globalists and marxists formulating the left spectre of the critical contemporary discourse. Thus setting the parametres of an independent field, no longer bound to Post-colonial, and therefore locality-defined, theories. Creating a new self-definition, rooted within media and independent content, presenting a contemporary perspective/outlook on a migrational process of liquid identity forms.
By trying to analyse and document the phenomenon of a second generation which places itself, as well as its cultural productions and language, within the non-governed form of media, this paper hopes to build the underlying theoretical grid, the semantic for the found syntax. Make the step which was already furthered and suggested when Post-colonialism merged with anti-globalism and began to explore the possibilities offered by a discourse which no longer needed to discuss bound-hybridity.

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Eduardo-J. Vior
Reappropriating Historical Narration as an Alternative to the Ideology of Globalization

The American Enterprise Institute (AEI) is one of the most important neoconservative think tanks from which the elite surrounding George W. Bush recrutes its cadres. By means of reductionist interpretations of history and culture, its authors suppress conflicts in order to justify their totalitarian "Weltbild" under the disguise of the ideology of globalization. The attempts of their liberalist contradictors to defend the enlightened Ideal of Subject against this barbary fail to succeed because of the irrationality of the world system one that these opponents support as well. From a utopian emancipating Human Rights perspective it is mandatory to overcome the dominant discourse on globalization in order to further develop the ideals of Liberty, Democracy and Justice. But for this confrontation is in need of new theoretical and methodological instruments.
For this purpose we resort to discourse analysis, deconstruction and Theory's critique, notwithstanding many authors question these instruments in terms of their (alleged) incapability to plausibly demonstrate their results. In order to neutralize these critiques I propose the critical reappropriation of historical narration as demonstration method of the social sciences. My goal here is, by means of applying discourse analysis to AEI's publicist production, to clarify the way historical conflicts have led neoconservatives to construct the ideology of globalization. Acting on the assumption of an emancipating Human Rights perspective, this recourse is to 'tie' discourse analysis to a new understanding of politics' materiality (Butler) and therefore establish a basis for the reconstruction of the political thought.

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Thomas Wägenbaur
Systems or Agents? The discursive (De-)Construction of Globalization

The globalization of the economy, politics, science, law, culture, or in short, of society as such has been conceptualised in various ways and according to familiar theoretical patterns. Apart from obvious shortcomings of these conceptualisations two theoretical models, the systemic (Luhmann et al.) and the agent approach (Giddens, Bourdieu et al.) shall be discussed here reviewing recent prominent publications in the field of globalization theory. These contrary theoretical models will yield complementary insights into the debate on the effects of primarily economic globalization on the other social systems.
Our discussion will scrutinize especially certain metaphors of globalization these conceptualising discourses employ. What "Network Society" (Manuel Castells), "The Woven World" (Daniel A. Yergin/Joseph Stanislaw), "World Community" (Chris Brown), "Governance" (James N. Rosenau, Fred Halliday et al.) or "Empire" (Michael Hardt/Antonio Negri) and other verbal coinages imply discourse analysis has to find out.
Discourse analysis combines this linguistic analysis with the respective theoretical model in order to relate different conceptualizations in a constructive fashion. Whatever globalization entails - and this is definitely a problem of linguistic representation - can be found out only by transgressing mutually exclusive models. The proverbial "promises and dangers" of globalization ultimately highlight a paradox at the heart of all theories: they differ - because they have to - from practice and yet to work out their interdependence is indispensable to improve practice and effect changes in reality, i.e. in its perception.

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Heike Wetzig
Image Thought and Representation

The 'Anthology of Art' forms a collection of 156 texts and 156 images. The participants in this project - which was initiated by Jochen Gerz (Paris) and edited by the Braunschweig School of Art - answered to the only question about their "vision of a yet unknown (future) art" "in the context of contemporary art". A question which requires no direct answering. Freshly written texts (images already existing as the artist's or the gallery's ownership) were published fortnightly between fall 2001 and 2002 in the Internet. The project is archived at: www.anthology-of-art.net. At present, the Université Rennes 2, the University of Craft and Design in Budapest and the Art School in Braunschweig co-operate in a following half-year's project which is supported by the EU. As a co-editor of the website, I would like to introduce the project to the symposion, getting one or two items up to discussion: Which answers are given by texts and images on the asking for a future, and how do they handle problems of globalization? How can we value these comments? To identify the "worldwide" understandable remarks to the project's question with the project itself - can we see the website, therefore, as a "plural (art-)work"? This is to be found out in a research group on lexical explanations of anthology's terms, preparing a small dictionary to assist understanding. Is this website a documentation of material which was collected for representation (digital images, i.e. transformed from 'picture' to 'image'), or is the site, beyond that, a self-representational phenomenon?

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Dirk Wiemann
For a Minor History: Postcolonial novels as supplements to Literature

In their book on Kafka, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari advocate a 'minor literature' that is politically committed, collective in scope, but outside the parameters of the discourse of the Nation. In the field of subaltern historiography, Dipesh Chakravarty's claim for a recuperation of 'histories 2' explodes the stagist historicist notion of world history as the universal narrative of capital. Without abandoning the Marxian analysis, Chakrabarty claims that there is - even in Marx's own writing - an acknowledgment of a multiplicity of pasts not all of which can be subsumed as / reduced to pre-histories of capital. In my paper I will try to read these two positions together, and apply them to a group of postcolonial texts by Mahasveta Devi, Michael Ondaatje and Arundhati Roy, whose politics is the figuration of such 'histories 2' in the aesthetic medium of a 'minor literature'.

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Aram Ziai
Post-Development as a project of radical democracy

The Post-Development school of development theory bluntly rejects ‘development’ simultaneously as a eurocentric discourse, an imperialist project and a meaningless concept. It argues for altenatives to development, usually in the form of communities combining elements of ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ culture, regaining control in the fields of politics, economics and knowledge in opposition to the state, global capitalism and science.
Post-Development texts have been interpreted as a cynical legitimation of neo-liberalism or a futile romanticization of pre-modern times, more sympathetic critics have at least acknowledged its potential to criticize the shortcomings of development theory and policy. However, none of the commentators has realized that Post-Development can also be seen as a manifesto of radical democracy in the Third World. For scholars interested in emancipation, the point is to identify the crucial differences between Post-Development texts sliding into (sometimes reactionary) neo-populism and those using elements of postmodern / postmarxist theory to lay out a path to social change which can be called radical democratic.

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